banks of Severnaya Dvina (North Dvina) were first discovered in the
beginning of this millennium by Vikings. English and Norman ships were
coming to the Severnaya Dvina mouth for furs and fish until 13th century
when global cooling of climate made navigating in the north seas dangerous.
The waterway from Europe to Severnaya Dvina was forgotten for
300 years. In 15th century, almost half-century before appearance of
Archangelsk port, at the walls of Nikolo-Karelski monastery on the south
coast of Nikolski mouth, first Russian northern port was functioning.
In the august of 1553, a storm threw ashore one of English ships looking
for northern way to China. Richard Chancellor was a captain of
the ship called "Edward Benaventure". One of the streets of Severodvinsk
now bears Richard's name. Chancellor visited Ivan the Terrible
and got his support, after evaluating all the benefits of discovery
of the Russian land. As a result, England got trade privileges
from the Russian czar. In 1557 diplomatic relation were open between
England and Russia. The first ambassador of Russia in England Osip Nepeya
(native of Vologda) left for England with Richard Chancellor
from Nikolo-Karelski monastery.
The foreign trade ships started coming to the walls of monastery and
on Yagri (Pink Island) warehouses were built for storage of goods.
of the city arrived on the boat "Ivan Kalyaev" in June 1936. They discovered
ruins of the Nikolo-Korelski monastery on the deserted banks of Severnaya
Dvina, almost forgotten by that time. History of building Severodvinsk
is similar to that of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Turksib, and Magnitka. The
first builders of Severodvinsk were a few of the Komsomol members as
well as thousands of prisoners of Yagrinlag who were brought there without
their own will. Living in the tents among the cold, wet
swamps inhabited with mosquitoes, they built 50-km railroad in
just 4 months that was open in November 1936. Then work
began on the submarine shipyard. As an award for the hard work,
the USSR Government gave the settlement status of the city and named
it Molotovsk on August 11, 1938.